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Native America

        Comprised of two continents, the West Indies, and their human beings, the traditional Indian name for the tribe, Native America is less complex than its welter of languages and political divisions.  Ohio Country is an important part of Native American history and fundamental to that of the United States.  The above map features massacres and battles from the late Eighteenth Century, a doleful time.  Speculating on how it could have been better rests on knowing what happened then and earlier.

        The Seventeenth Century Beaver Wars along with Old World diseases depopulated Ohio Country.  Its Algonquin and Siouan speakers, among them the Shawnee and  perhaps Omaha, were driven out as Iroquoia expanded.  Surviving Erie, Neutral, Tobacco, Huron and other defeated Iroquoian speakers replaced fallen Five Nation warriors through adoption, yet even the addition of the Tuscarora as the Sixth Nation in 1722 did little to halt the decline of the confederation.

        Six Nation Iroquois collectively called Mingos joined Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot and other refugees in repopulating Ohio Country, accompanied by the fur traders who supplied them, primarily Pennsylvanians.  William Penn's colony was midpoint in its Long Peace with Native America that events in Ohio Country would bring to a bloody end.  In his 1882 history of Augusta County, Virginia, John Peyton concludes that had the Indian policy of the United States followed Penn's pratices, the country would have been settled peacefully.

          The Walking Purchase of 1737 by William Penn's chilren and their validation of Six Nation control of the colony's Native Americans undermined the Long Peace, embittering the Delaware and stiffening Quaker opposition to the Proprietors.  King George's War in 1744 brought the offer of a British alliance with Illinois tribes on the Wabash River, which the Penns accepted.  As the war wound down in 1748, the Penns negotiated with the Twightwees as members of a confederation of Ohio Country tribes led by Mingo chiefs independent of the Six Nations.

          French response included the 1749 Celeron expedition and Charles Langlade's 1752 attack on the Twightwee village of Pickawillany in which Chief Memeskia was killed and eaten.  At the same time, Virginia was concluding a treaty with the Ohio confederation to build a fort and bring settlers into its country.  Pennsylvania lost interest in immediately defending its charter's western territory when falsely told the Indians opposed building a fort there.

          United States history finds a starting place in twenty-one-year old George Washington's mission to warn the French that Ohio Country was British territory, followed by Virginia's feeble effort to fortify the forks of the Ohio and Washington's inept expedition that ended with his surrender of Fort Necessity and confession of assassinating Jumonville.  General Braddock's diastrous campaign the following year, 1755, becomes in United States history a triumph for his loyal, courageous Aide-de-Camp Washington. Ohio Country and Native American history recognizes positive traits in Washington and Braddock, but emphasizes their arrogant racism as the reason their missions failed.  More than 250 years later, the lack of this perspective still blinds Americans to their past and who they are as a people.

          Native America's Ohio Country remains a refuge for human beings.  Its brief autonomy in the middle of the 1700s is still a model and goal partly achieved by the creation of West Virginia during the Civil War, a step forward in the United States and Native America becoming one and the same place.  As the nation gradually becomes less racist, Native America emerges with a culture open to anyone.  It has been here all along, of course, in the two continents, in the West Indies.  Social scientists and archaeologists would need to cooperate  in accessing how local Native American cultures were transmitted and to what extent they are the bases for regional characteristics, as unlikely as the federal government paying for DNA testing to answer its question about race on the census form.  How people identify themselves is another matter and should be respected, the essence of political correctness.  Opponents of political correctness and Native Americans are fueled by their divided natures and informed by racist demogogues.

           Ohio Country's Native American prehistory was significantly lengthened by lead archaeologist James M. Adovasio's excavation of Meadowcroft Rockshelter near Avella, Pennsylvania.  His dates for human habitation beginning16,000 to 19,000 years ago did not accord with the accepted theory that Clovis people were the first Americans 11,500 years ago.  Dr. Adovasio was subjected to ridicule.  A few archaeologists continue to dispute Meadowcroft Rockshelter dates, even as Virginia's Cactus Hill and other sites prove older.

          Meadowcroft Rockshelter's excavation recovered artifacts and debris from Paleo, Archaic, and Woodland Indians whose Ohio Country cultures peaked in the artistry and monumental earthworks of the Adena and Hopewell.  After flattening out into the little known, egalitarian Late Woodland Native Americans, they split into the Fort Ancient and Monongahela people who appear around A.D. 1000 and vanish by 1650.  Almost certainly the Shawnee are Fort Ancient descendents, but who are the Monongahela, if any modern tribe?  Either a curious coincidence or evidence that the Monongahela culture survives in its homeland is the current Power of 32 effort to organize politically the 32 counties that were once and apparently remain its boundary:



            

          The Shawnee connection to Fort Ancient forebears could easily be tested through DNA comparisons, a relatively inexpensive project, and the mystery of the Monongahela unraveled from its double helix spool were it not for the nearly universal refusal of regional  archaeologists to cooperate in the study.  After all,
Bernard K. Means says in Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition: "Even if archaeologists succeed in assigning all or part of the Monongahela tradition to a specific linguistic or tribal group known dimly from vague historical documents, simply possessing the historical identity of the Monongahela tradition would tell us little about how they organized themselves socially, politically, or economically earlier (Means, p. 23).

         Yet on other pages and at the beginning of his book, Means says "a serious limitation to our understanding of past people that once inhabited the Late Prehistoric Northeast is that affiliations to historically known tribes have been lost or are ambiguous" (Means, p. 1).   What explains Means' apparent contradiction?  Regional archaeologists are concerned that their work might be hampered if, for instance, the Omaha and other speakers of Dhegiha Sioux are genetic descendents of the Monongahela, able to claim their ancestors' bones and grave goods as entitled by law.  There is strong support for the connection in Means' book, as well as by Omaha tribal tradition, historical records, and linguistic evidence, but in the name of protecting science a hypocritical conspiracy exists to stiffle Monongahela DNA research and circumvent federal law.

          Native American prehistory is largely in the hands of archaeologists antagonistic to contemporary Native Americans, at least in this part of Ohio Country.  Western Pennsylvania archaeologists also have a pathological fear of looters, not much of a problem locally these days but still a powerful excuse to horde information and artifacts while at the same time turning a blind eye to the wholesale destruction of Native American sites by corporate interests, most egregiously by predominately Texas gas drilling companies.  A complex of recorded Native American sites a little north of West Newton, Pennsylvania was impacted recently by a shallow gas well and is now slated for a Marcellus gas well, prompting an attempt to salvage information, a project opposed by the region's archaeological community.   The following photograph of the dig's shallow gas well datum point and some others have a false camera default date of 2005, but were taken between April 7 and May 1, 2010.



 
  

      Central to nearby recorded Native American archaeological sites is Zumbro # 6, 36WM711, located near an old springhouse on the Zumbro farm between the barn and house.  On April 7, 2010 a one meter square (S 50 E 1) was excavated in the field above the spring and on May 1, 2010 a 39th (S 225 E 201).  Coincidentally, both squares revealed deeply disturbed subsoils, the latter for unknown reasons and the former due to the drilling of the shallow gas well.  A satelllite image overlaid with a 25 meter grid in which the units are numbered sequentially shows the order in which the squares, the dots near the SE unit corner, were dug.   The cm. designation is an obvious scale error on the grid, which measures meters not centimeters.     




     Finding post molds and excavating subsoil features before the Marcellus gas well destroyed them outweighed other considerations in this salvage effort.  Four tentative features were found and screened overall, two in S 75 E 101, one in square S 75 E 76, and the fourth in S 50 E 76. These features are in sequential units 16, 17, and 18 on the above grid, where they may be a cluster.

     Possible post molds were found in S 50 E 126, S 125 E151, S 126 E 151, S 75 E 151, S 150 E 176, S 150 E 151, S 150 E 150, S 150 E 177, S 200 E 126. Scrapers were found in S 100 E 76 and S 150 E 101. One diagnostic artifact, a 6,000 to 4,000 BP Late Archaic Brewerton side-notched blunt and an end scraper were found in the plowzone of S 150 E 101.  Post molds cluster in units 14, 27, 28, and 29 on the grid, with the Brewerton blunt and an end scraper turning up in the 30th unit excavated.

    Although the plow zone in only the first square, S 50 E 1, was screened, chert was found in in 27 of the 38 squares excavated.  Fire changed rock (FCR) was found in fourteen squares, hanmmer stones in seven squares, charcoal in seven squares, ash notable in several squares, and a pitted stone in one square.  Artifacts were found in greatest concentration in a line from behind the barn across the field in a WSW direction where a hollow and streambed leads down the ridge to the Youghiogheny River.  Zumbro farm surface collected artifacts missed by arrowhead hunters over the centuries:





While most of the projectile points are Mid to Late Archaic notched types, among them Brewertons and the larger Vestals, the bi-furcated base is probably a MacCorkle from Early Archaic times and the three Madison triangles true arrowheads of the Late Prehistoric Monongahela people or slightly earlier Woodland Indians.  Locally acquired Uniontown chert is the most common material in the assemblage.  The yellowish olive smaller scraper is Loyalhanna chert, the blue points are Coshocton chert from Ohio, and the white artifacts are from Ohio's Flint Ridge quarries. Following are digital photographs and simplified paper work for the dig:



 







                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit       S50 E0       Square      S50 E1         Datum     gas well    

Opened    4/7/10   Closed    4/7/10    Excavator  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts        2 pieces of chert                                   

Subsurface features      subsoil mixed due to gas well excavation,   
rodent burrow, no features -- Fea. 1 did not pan out                      

Profile ______ Charcoal sample ______ Soil sample                    

Digital photo   X   Video   X   GPS   N 40°13.723  W 79°45.852  





 

  

                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit 
    S50 E50       Square    S50 E51       Datum      gas well    
 
Opened    4/7/10   Closed   4/7/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood  
  

Plowzone artifacts      None                                                        

Subsurface features      None                                                       
 

Profile               Charcoal sample                Soil sample
                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS   N 40°13.720  W 79°45.814   


 

  

 

                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S50 E100      Square     S50 E101       Datum     gas well     

Opened   4/8/10   Closed    4/9/10    Excavator    Jim Greenwood   

Plowzone artifacts       One piece of chert                                      

Subsurface features      None                                                         

Profile                Charcoal sample                 Soil sample
               

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.718  W 79°45.780   








                                Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S100 E100    Square    S100 E101      Datum    gas well     

Opened   4/8/10   Closed    4/9/10    Excavator   Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts            None                                                  

Subsurface features 
    None, but S99 E 101 has a 5 cm. postmold 
extending 28 cm. below subsoil at N 33 E 8                                
 
Profile               Charcoal sample               Soil sample
                
 
Digital photo   X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.671  W 79
°45.774  



 





                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S100 E50      Square     S100 E51       Datum     gas well    

Opened    4/9/10   Closed   4/9/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood   

Plowzone artifacts     Two pieces chert, river rock fragment,       
rounded limestone rock                                           
                  

Subsurface features         None                                                   

Profile
                Charcoal sample                Soil sample              

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.689  W 79°45.810  








                              Zumbro
#6, 36WM711
 

Unit    S100 E0     Square    S100 E1      Datum       gas well        

Opened    4/9/10   Closed   4/9/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood   

Plowzone artifacts     Two pieces chert, river rock fragment,        
rounded  limestone  rock                                         
                   

Subsurface features         None                                                   

Profile
              Charcoal sample               Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS   N 40°13.694  W 79°45.844  








                               Zumbro #6, 36WM711 

Unit    S50 E125    Square     S50 E126       Datum      gas well     

Opened   4/10/10   Closed   4/10/10   Excavator  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts          Rock fired white                                     

Subsurface features 
      5 cm postmold 23 cm. deep into subsoil    

Profile
               Charcoal sample               Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS   N 40°13.716  W 79°45.772   










                               Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S75 E125    Square    S75 E126      Datum 
       gas well      

Opened    4/10/10   Closed    4/10/10    Excavator  Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts        Hammerstone fragment, rock fired white,     
small notched stone                                                                      

Subsurface features 
      None                                                       

Profile               Charcoal sample                Soil sample 
                

Digital photo 
  X    Video   X    GPS   N 40°13.703  W 79°45.760  








                                Zumbro #6, 36 WM711

Unit    S100 E125    Square     S100 E126       Datum      gas well    

Opened    4/12/10   Closed    4/12/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts        Rock fired red, two pieces low grade chert    

Subsurface features       None                                                         

Profile
                Charcoal sample                 Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS     N 40°13.691  W 79°45.757    



 




                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S125 E125    Square    S125 E126      Datum     gas well    

Opened   4/12/10   Closed  4/12/10  Excavator   Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts     Two rocks, one chert piece, one rounded     
rock                                                                                          

Subsurface features 
      None                                                     

Profile
              Charcoal sample               Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS   N 40°13.672 W 79°45.755  


 
 

 





                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S125 E100    Square    S125 E101      Datum      gas well     

Opened   4/12/10   Closed   4/12/10    Excavator   Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts       Six chert                                                     

Subsurface features 
      None                                                        

Profile
                Charcoal sample                 Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS     N 40°13.677 W 79°45.775    










                               Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S125 E75     Square     S125 E76      Datum       gas well     

Opened   4/12/10   Closed    4/12/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts           Fire reddened rocks                                

Subsurface features 
      None                                                        

Profile
               Charcoal sample                Soil sample                 

Digital photo    X   Video    X    GPS   N 40°13.703  W 79
°45.760 











                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711


Unit    S100 E150    Square    S 100 E151     Datum
      gas well     

Opened   4/13/10   Closed   4/13/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood   

Plowzone artifacts
     None                                                           

Subsurface features    None                                                           

Profile               Charcoal sample                Soil sample
                 

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.691 W 79°45.741    


 

 





                              Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit   S125 E150   Square    S125 E151     Datum       gas well        

Opened   4/13/10   Closed   4/14/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood    

Plowzone artifacts   Hammerstone, pitted stone, two rocks, charcoal  

Subsurface features       Six cm. postmold at N72 E46, line of three  
questionable four cm. postmolds at N35 E0, N324 E12, N14 E24     
and three cm postmold in square S126 E151 at N97 E45. Rodents    
brought charcoal deep into subsoil                                                  

Profile               Charcoal sample       X        Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.670 W 79°45.739    









                              Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit   S75 E150    Square    S75 E151      Datum        gas well      

Opened   4/14/10   Closed   4/15/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts      None                                                          

Subsurface features    One 4 cm. postmold                                    

Profile               Charcoal sample                Soil sample
                 

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS    N 40°13.703 W 79°45.741    







 

 
 







                             Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit   S75 E100    Square    S75 E101      Datum         gas well       

Opened   4/15/10   Closed   4/16/10   Excavator 
   Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts    One chert, two stones, charcoal, ash                

Subsurface features   Fea. 1 (25 x 28 cm.), Fea 2 (14 x 20 cm.)       

Profile
      X       Charcoal sample                 Soil sample               

Digital photo 
   X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.671 W 79°45.751 
















                               Zumbro #6, 36 WM711

Unit    S75 E75     Square    S75 E76       Datum
        gas well        

Opened   4/17/10   Closed   4/17/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts    Chert, FCR (fire changed rock)                       
 
Subsurface features   Fea. 4 (27 x 27 cm.), 4 cm. postmold at         
N 99 E 94 of Square S 75 E 75                                                     

Profile
      X       Charcoal sample                Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS     N 40°13.703W 79°45.798    

 














                              Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S50 E75     Square     S50 E76      Datum       gas well        

Opened   4/17/10   Closed    4/18/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts           Charcoal                                                

Subsurface features 
      Fea. 4 (30 x 40 cm.), 4 cm. postmold at     
N 70 E 6 in Square S 50 E 77                                                       

Profile      X       
Charcoal sample     X       Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X    Video    X    GPS   N 40°13.715  W 79°45.800 










                               Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit      S75 E50     Square     S75 E51       Datum 
      gas well     

Opened   4/18/10   Closed    4/1810   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts     Two chert on surface, two in plowzone and   
additional chert on surface of neighboring squares                        
 

Subsurface features 
      None                                                       

Profile
               Charcoal sample                Soil sample                

Digital photo    X   Video    X    GPS   N 40°13.703  W 79
°45.810 



                                


























                                Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit      S75 E25     Square     S75 E26       Datum 
      gas well     

Opened   4/20/10   Closed    4/20/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts        Three chert                                              

Subsurface features 
  None  -- two rodent disturbances, one with a  
great deal of charcoal and organic material                                     

Profile
               Charcoal sample                 Soil sample                

Digital photo    X   Video    X    GPS   N 40°13.701  W 79°45.832 







                              Zumbro #6, 36 WM711

Unit     S75 E0     Square    S75 E1       Datum
          gas well        
 
Opened   4/20/10   Closed   4/20/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts    Chert core (back wall) and FCR subsoil level 

Subsurface features   None                                                           

Profile
      X       Charcoal sample                Soil sample                

Digital photo 
  X   Video   X   GPS     N 40°13.710 W 79°45.848  








                             Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit   S100 E75    Square    S100 E76       Datum       gas well       

Opened   4/21/10   Closed   4/21/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts    Large chert scraper, FCRock human altered     

Subsurface features       None                                                       

Profile
               Charcoal sample                 Soil sample               

Digital photo 
   X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.686 W 79°45.790 














                              Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit   S100 E25    Square    S100 E26      Datum       gas well       

Opened   4/21/10   Closed   4/21/10   Excavator 
 Jim Greenwood  

Plowzone artifacts       None                                                        

Subsurface features   Fea. 5 (30 x 40 cm.),  charcoal                     

Profile
      X       Charcoal sample                 Soil sample               

Digital photo 
   X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.692 W 79°45.827 






                                  Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit     S125 E50      Square      S125 E51      Datum     gas well    

Opened   4/21/10   Closed    4/21/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts         One chert piece, one hammerstone frag.     

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.877  W 79°45.808











                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S100 E175     Square     S100 E176     Datum     gas well    

Opened   4/22/10   Closed    4/22/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts       Five chert, various rocks fired bright red      

Subsurface features 
        None   (stake and board E 15# wrong)     

Profile                
Charcoal sample               Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
   X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.684  W 79°45.725










                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S125 E175     Square     S125 E176     Datum     gas well    

Opened   4/22/10   Closed    4/22/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts       Two chert  pieces, core-like stone                

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                
Charcoal sample               Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
   X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.671  W 79°45.719





No digital photos of S 150 E 176, or 4/24-25/10 excavations

                                  Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S150 E175     Square    S150 E176     
Datum      gas well    

Opened   4/24/10   Closed    4/24/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts 
    Seven chert pieces, hammerstone                  

Subsurface features 
    5 cm postmold (N 28 E 70) extends 3 cm.   
below subsoil.  6 cm postmold (N 66 E 7) of Square S 150 E 176   
extending 20 cm. into subsoil                                                        

Profile                
Charcoal sample              Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
         Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.656  W 79°45.715



 

No digital photos of S 150 E 151, or 4/24-25/10 excavations

                                  Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S150 E150     Square    S150 E151     
Datum      gas well    

Opened   4/24/10   Closed    4/24/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts    Nine chert, many utilized                                

Subsurface features 
   9 cm. postmold N 45 E 80, a 7 cm. postmold
N 7 E 96 in Square S 150 E 150, S 150 E 151 rodent disturbed       

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
        Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.660  W 79°45.732 




No digital photos of S 150 E 126, or 4/24-25/10 excavations

                                  Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S150 E125     Square    S150 E126     
Datum      gas well    

Opened   4/24/10   Closed    4/24/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts     Four chert pieces, FCR, charcoal                  

Subsurface features 
         None                                                   

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
         Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.661  W 79°45.753




No digital photos of S 150 E 101, or 4/24-25/10 excavations

                                  Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S150 E100     Square    S150 E101     
Datum      gas well    

Opened   4/25/10   Closed    4/25/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts    Brewerton side-notched blunt, end scraper, six
chert pieces, FCR, charcoal and ash                                              

Subsurface features 
       Rodent run                                              

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
         Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.663  W 79°45.769




                                   Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S175 E100     Square    S175 E101     
Datum      gas well    


Opened   4/25/10   Closed    4/25/10   Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts     Three chert pieces                                        

Subsurface features 
      None                                                       

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                  

Digital photo 
   X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.663  W 79°45.769










                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S175 E125     Square     S175 E126     Datum     gas well    

Opened   4/27/10   Closed    4/27/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts     Five chert, FCR, 7 x 20 cm. clay lumps in      
plowzone                                                                                     

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo  
X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.649  W 79°45.750










                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S200 E100     Square     S200 E101     Datum     gas well   

Opened   4/27/10   Closed    4/27/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts       None                                                         

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo  
X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.634  W 79°45.763

 








                               Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S200 E75     Square     S200 E76      Datum       gas well     

Opened   4/28/10   Closed    4/28/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts      Three chert, FCR                                        

Subsurface features 
      None                                                       

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
   X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.636  W 79°45.782

















                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S200 E150     Square    S200 E151      Datum    gas well     


Opened   4/28/10   Closed    4/28/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts       Chert, FCR                                                

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.633  W 79°45.726










                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S200 E175     Square    S200 E176      Datum    gas well     


Opened   4/29/10   Closed    4/29/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts  Hammerstone, rectangular platform stone, FCR,
slate flakes, four chert pieces, charcoal                                         

Subsurface features 
        None                                                     

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X    Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.637  W 79°45.682










                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S200 E200     Square    S200 E201      Datum   gas well    

corrected to Unit    S225 E250  Square     S 225 E251

Opened   4/29/10   Closed    4/29/10   Excavator   Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts      Hammerstone, two chert, FCR                      

Subsurface features 
    Heavy clay soil greatly soil                        

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.631  W 79°45.697












                                 Zumbro #6, 36WM711

Unit    S225 E200     Square    S225 E201      Datum     gas well    


corrected to Unit    S 250 E 250     Square     S 250 E 251    

Opened    5/1/10   Closed     5/1//10    Excavator 
  Jim Greenwood 

Plowzone artifacts      Hammerstone, four chert, FCR                     

Subsurface features 
    Heavy clay soil greatly soil                        

Profile                
Charcoal sample             Soil sample                 

Digital photo 
  X     Video    X    GPS  N 40°13.618  W 79°45.683

     The last two squares were excavated somewhat discontinuously because their area of the field proved rich in artifacts during surface hunts over the last decade and the farmer who owned the field was told that work on the Marcellus gas well was imminent, news that contributed to two weeks of illness for the excavator who upon return found the field planted in corn.  By fall 2010, Atlas Energy has not yet begun drilling the well and has been acquired by Chevron.  One thousand feet northwest of the Zumbro # 6 shallow gas well datum is the stake for a planned gas well that would impact a complex of recorded sites 36WM458, 454, and 88, mostly located in the second phographs below.    Nearby recorded sites 36WM455, 456, and 708, were beyond Sterner Road to the left of the datum well in the first photograph below:







A look at a satellite map reveals the significance of these sites and Zumbro # 6, respectively at the head of the north and south forks of a hollow that descends east to Sewickley Creek, which loops around the plateau to enter the Youghiogheny River above Gratztown.  The USGS Donora quadrangle traces an old road east from the mouth of Sewickley Creek up the ridge that becomes Sterner Road with its complex of recorded sites, likely an Indian trail from Archaic times.  Gratztown is the Sewickley Old Town mentioned in George Croghan's 1749 deed for 60,000 mid-Youghiogheny River acres and said to be the first Shawnee settlement in Western Pennsylvania, around 1720.  In addition to being close to the well-traveled Glades Trail (Route 136) running east and west, the mouth of Sewickley Creek was a point on a southwest/northeast Indian Trail partly preserved by Route 201 connecting, for instance, today's Brownsville and Kittanning.

     As an amateur archaeologist, last October I attended the local Society for Pennsylvania Archaelogy chapter meeting to announce that the Zumbro #6 information was on website ohiocountry.us and to ask for the group's cooperation in excavating in Gratztown, PA for Shawnee Old Town and the trading post burnt during Pontiac's rebellion.  Although the chapter president wrote the information down, I was dubious, for the chapter had agreed to do the salvage work at Zumbro #6 and reneged.  There were college-age archaeology students present, and I told them about funding a DNA study of the Monongahela people, and claimed the opposition of the archeological community to it was racist.  I talked about the Native American who spoke at a Rostraver Township Historical Society on the survival of the Monongahela culture in the present population, to which I added the Power of 32 project coincidence and linguistic evidence that I learned at California University of Pennsylvania.  The upshot was personaql abuse after the meeting and this letter:

Mr. Greenwood,

      The Chapter Board and I must regretfully inform of your termination from the Society of Pennsylvania Archaeology Mon/Yough Chapter #3.  The reason for this termination is due in part of the violation of our bylaws regarding the unauthorized excavation of a known recorded site(s) north of West Newton PA,  The disregard for damage to the upland site(s) through a clear lack of proper and state regulated excavation techniques for a phase I, II, and III site survey along with the destruction of data incurred due to a lack of screening for cultural mateials, has compelled the board of this chapter to revoke your membership.
      While this evidence is enough to revoke participant's membership, your letter to the SPA and your conduct at the October meeting has compelled the Chapter's Board of Directors to act.  Accusing anyone, the chapter, or its body of being "racist" or a "racist organization" is well within your 1st Amendment rights.  To make the allegation based solely on the decision of the chapter, its members, or an individual's lack of support for a highly heated and controversial subject, i.e. the DNA testing of Native American's remains, without the consent of tribal leaders headquartered in Washington DC, or acting in disregard for provisions cited within NAGPRA, is not considered racism.  We will not conduct meetings where unfounded accusations are the topic.
      Every member has the right to sit in a meeting and discuss archaeology, cultural anthropology, history and the myriad of sub fields relating to archaeology in a environment free of hostility.  Attached to this letter are correspondences that highlight your violations in regard to the Mon/Yough  Chapter's bylaws.  Attached are letters from between various members and the governing body of the SPA.  These correspondences represent the conflict in interests between our chapter and your goals.  After reviewing all the information, the governing board of this chapter has voted to terminate your membership.  The signatures below represent this body.  We ask, as a chapter, that you no longer attend our meetings or functions.  Your dues for the 2010 year will be refunded to you.


Sincerely,

SPA Mon/Yough Chapter #3 Board of Directors

President                                                                 Trustee                   
signed                                                                      signed
Marc Henshaw                                                         John Nass

Vice President                                                           Treasurer
signed                                                                        signed
Ken Gayman                                                              Carl Mauer

Secretary                                                                    Student Liason  Officer
signed                                                                         signed
Richard Yanock                                                           Alex Wasko

Date: November 14,2010 

Here is the response I e-mailed to Trustee John Nass and asked him to forward to the board members on Dec. 2, 2010, 7:38 PM:

Dr. Nass,

As the Trustee of Mon/Yough Chapter #3 please relay this response to all who signed the letter revoking my membership for looting, for writing to the SPA Board about personal abuse, and for pointing out racism in the archaeological community, particularly regarding DNA analysis of Native American remains. Included was a copy of my 4/2/10 e-mail offering to withdraw my membership if the chapter viewed my work near West Newton as looting. The chapter has somewhat tardily done so, but is not content to let me quietly withdraw.

Dr. Nass, you were at the initial Mon/Yough meeting I attended when racism within the archaeological community was my topic, and you may recall that it provoked significant anti-Native American sentiment. You spoke in support of Native Americans then and lip service is paid to them in the letter revoking my membership. Contrary to what the letter claims, racism was not my topic at the October meeting, but almost an aside and I regret that you were not present to offer your current view that my and Jay Custer's finding of racism by PA archaeologists is unfounded. No one at the meeting made such an objection until later.

President Henshaw angrily denied the racism charge after the meeting, then upon realizing that it referred to Native Americans went on a long rant assailing them and asked if I had read the book about Kennewick Man. I have and consider it anti-Native American propaganda. Carl Mauer and Ken Gayman were present after the meeting and heard an angry President Henshaw demand to know my agenda. To learn about the past, I said. Then came his racist anger and a final expression of outrage for violating a confidence, that California University of Pennsylvania was conducting DNA analysis of Monongahela remains. Marc informed me of it at the West Newton site one day before I met with Dr. Cencich, whose first question was: “Do you know that the university is analyzing Monongahela DNA?”  Marc is angry at me for not lying to Dr. Cencich. Carl and Ken were listening to all this. It was abusive on Marc's part, but then he views as “sordid” my seven years of field and lab work for the Westmoreland chapter, not to mention projects with you, Dr. Nass.

“Every member has the right to sit in a meeting and discuss archaeology, cultural anthropology, history, and the myriad of sub fields relating to the field of archaeology in an environment free of hostility,” but apparently not after the meeting. During the October meeting itself no hostility was expressed by anyone. I had a lot to say, but people including Marc seemed interested. He ran the meeting and could have cut me off at any time, but instead was supportive and encouraging, so I was caught off guard by the abuse afterward.

My main reason for attending the meeting was to announce the posting of some of my amateur archaeological work near West Newton on the Native America page of ohiocountry.us. There is a Critical Comments page where I put such responses to my work and my replies. Ron Eisert lives near me here in Washington, another outcast amateur archaeologist and better example of abuse by the archaeological community. Rest assured I will not attend any future meetings or functions of the currently run Mon/Yough chapter or have anything to do with you and its Board members. My membership revocation was unnecessary, hurtful, and hypocritical, traits that define the group. Dr. Nass, your duplicity regarding the salvage excavation near West Newton, DNA analysis of Native American remains held by California, and racism among archaeologists reflects the lack of integrity and intellectual honesty in today's professional class.

 

Sincerely,

Jim Greenwood


      Should Dr. Nass forward my response to the Board members, it might make uncomforable reading for them.  They signed onto an abusive, racist version on what happened at the meeting that makes a mockery of the stated regard for my 1st Amendment rights, NAGPRA, and Native Americans.  The stifling of criticism and fear of truth behind the request for me not to come to chapter meetings and functions speaks for itself.


7/21/11

This photo of the shallow gas well near the NW corner of the Zumbro farm was taken around 7:00 PM on July 14, 2011 shows the intitial excavation for a Marcellus Shale gas well

Gas well, Zumbro arm, Apple Mills Rd.


Photo of Zumbro farm looking south from same spot on Apple Mills Rd. as previous image, taken around 7:00 PM, July 14, 2011.






Photo of Zumbro farm looking NW from West Newton, Pa.'s Second St. Extension around 7:00 PM, July 14, 2011
with bulldozed field and Zumbro barn in the middleground.

Zumbro farm from 2nd St. Ext.

A second photo of Zumbro farm looking NW from West Newton, Pa.'s Second St. Extension around 7:00 PM, July 14, 2011
with bulldozed field and Zumbro barn in the middleground

Zumbro farm from Second St. Ext, around 7:00 PM, 7/14/2011


The owner of the Zumbro Farm, Sonny Angelcuk, was told at the end of April, 2010 that the drilling of a Marcellus Shale gas well was imminent, but more than a year passed before work began.  During that time, February 14, 2010 to be precise, the Mon-Yough S.P.A. Chapter revoked my membership partly for unauthorized excavation that damaged the site, partly for writing a letter to the Society of Pennsylvania Archaeology protesting personal abuse by the Westmoreland Chapter, and partly for pointing out the racism in the archaeology community.  Paticularly hypocritical is the concern for my first amendment rights expressed in the letter, quoted above.   The salvage operation that the Mon-Yough Chapter agreed to undertake and that its professional archaeologists later tried to stop provides the only subsurface information that there will ever be about the impacted site.  It appears from the photos above, confirmed by the 7/24/11 photograph below, that nearly every one-meter square excavated last spring has been obliterated along with the twenty-four meters of uninvestigated ground between them, but this is at best of secondary importance to the archaeology community in Western Pennsylvania.  Their anger about the project is fueled by hatred of living Native Americans, as does their opposition to DNA analysis of Monongahela Indians, which might prove that a contemporary tribe descends from them.

Zumbro 7/24/11